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    Reproduction in plants like moss and fern is through spores.

    The reproduction mechanism in plants like moss and fern is known as spore formation. Spores are small, typically single-celled reproductive structures that are produced by the parent plant.

    They are often enclosed in a protective outer layer, such as a sporangium or spore case, which helps to protect them from environmental factors like drying out, UV radiation, and predation.

    In mosses, spores are produced in capsules that develop at the tip of a stalk called a seta. When the capsule is mature, it will split open, releasing the spores into the surrounding environment. The spores can then germinate and grow into a new moss plant under suitable conditions.

    In ferns, spores are produced in structures called sporangia, which are typically located on the undersides of fronds or leaves. When the sporangia are mature, they will release the spores, which can then be dispersed by the wind or other means. Once the spores land in a suitable environment, they will germinate and grow into a small, heart-shaped structure called a gametophyte. The gametophyte will then produce sperm and egg cells, which can fertilize to form a new fern plant.

    Spore formation is a type of asexual reproduction, as the new plant is formed from a single parent and does not involve the fusion of gametes.

    This method of reproduction allows plants to rapidly colonize new areas, as spores can be easily dispersed over long distances. However, it also limits genetic diversity, as all the offspring are genetically identical to the parent plant.

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